Family Tree of the Adlers, Edwardses, Hogans, Lipscombes and Olivers
Married: 2 Mar 1812, St Johns, Paramatta, NSW, Australia
Born: 18th c., England
Born: 18th c., England
Born: 3 Nov 1771, Southwark, London, England
Christened: 1 Dec 1771, St George the Martyr, Southwark, London, England
Died: 1 Nov 1883, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Buried: 2 Nov 1883, St John's Cemetery, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Born: 9 Mar 1806, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Christened: 23 Mar 1806, St John's Church, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Died: 23 Apr 1855, Russell, Bay of Islands, New Zealand
Born: 3 Aug 1809, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Christened: 28 Oct 1810, St John's Church, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Died: May 1849, Australia
Born: 20 Oct 1811, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Christened: 10 Jan 1813, St John's Church, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Died: 3 May 1864, at sea, off Poor Knights Island, New Zealand
Born: 5 Apr 1818, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Christened: 25 Oct 1818, St John's Church, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Died: 1 Aug 1851, Australia
Buried: Upper Colo Cemetery, NSW, Australia
Mary Ann Snowden
Born: 20 Feb 1820, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Christened: 25 May 1822, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Died: 11 Dec 1873, Junction St (off Margaret St Sth), Sydney, NSW, Australia
Buried: Dec 1873, Windsor, NSW, Australia
Born: 1822, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Born: 1824, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Born: 18th c., England
Born: 18th c.
Born: c.1777, Gloucs, England
Christened: 22 Mar 1778, Gloucester St Michael, Gloucester, England
Died: 13 Jul 1828, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Buried: 14 Jul 1828, St John's Cemetery, Parramatta, NSW, Australia
Source: Birth - St George the Martyr Registers, London Archives [KS]. Christening - Baptism record, London Record Office [BR]. Death - Death certificate [VS].
Source: Birth - Details from family stories [VS]. Death - Death certificate [VS].
Marriage source: Marriage certificate [VS].
Andrew Snowden was tried at Southwark Quarter Sessions 21 February 1791 and sentenced to 7 years transportation. He arrived on the "Pitt" 14 February 1792. He was given a Certificate of Emacipation in 1811 (his time having expired on 11 February 1778).
Andrew must have gone to the Parramatta area early in his life here. The 1810 Muster reports: 'He has resided 15 yrs on this leased land. Has built a new house ...'. He had a spirit licence by 1811; he sold fresh meat to Government stores; he was given grants of land.
My Great-Great-Great-Great-Grandparents arrived in Australia in the 1790s - over 200 years ago. They both were convicted of crimes and transported to N.S.W.
Andrew was born 3 Nov1 771 at Southwark, London and christened 1 Dec1 771 at St George the Martyr Church at Southwark.His original christening record has been sighted in the London Archives. His parents were Andrew and Dorothy Snowden - Andrew Snr was a Soldier - the family lived at Lombard St in 1757 and 1771. Parchment and paper documents in box No ASSI94/1345 covering the Lent Assizes for Surrey in 1791 were found by English Researcher Stephen Wright - the details as follows.
A 'Calendar' of the prisoners delivered to the Assize Court on 23 March 1791 for trial had been prepared by the County Sheriff who had brought them from the County Gaol:
Andrew Snowden had been committed the 24th day of August 1790 by William Winch Esq. (i.e. had been sent to gaol on that date by the named Justice of the Peace). He had been "charged on the oaths of William Dawson, James Bush and Thomas Hunt on violent suspicion of having, in the night between the 17th and 18th days of August instant in the Parish of St George's Southwark broken into the house of that William Dawson and taken away four pairs of Nankeen Breeches, and ten pairs of stockings belonging to him" The Justice had received sworn evidence from Dawson, Bush and Hunt that they strongly suspected Andrew of burglary. (Nankeen Breeches were trousers made of a buff coloured cotton cloth originally made in Nanking, China)
It then appears that a long delay occurred while details of the alleged crimes were investigated so it was not until 23 Mar 1791 at the Lent Assizes at Kingston-on-Thames in Surrey that his trial took place. Certainly the list of items alleged at the trial to have been stolen differed somewhat from the initial list.
By law at that time, every case to be tried had to be reviewed beforehand by a 'Grand Jury' composed of Justices etc. to consider whether or not the evidence available was sufficient to warrant a trial rather than the release of the prisoner without charge.
The 'Indictment' (formal statement of the charges) for Andrew's trial had been marked on the reverse side 'True Bill', the traditional phrase indicating that the Grand Jury had decided that there was a need for the trial by jury to go ahead.
Four witnesses were sworn in, their names being listed below the words 'True Bill' as William Dawson, James Bush, Henry Alport and Thomas Hunt. The formal charge on the Indictment was that "Andrew Snowden, late of the Parish of St George, within the Borough of Southwark in the County of Surrey, Labourer" had used force to break into the house of William Dawson at about 2am during the night of 17-18 August 1790 and had taken away "Three silver tablespoons of the value of 2 pounds, Four silver teaspoons of the value of 6 shillings, Four pairs of Nankeen Breeches of the value of 30 shillings and Four pairs of Worsted stockings of the value of 6 shillings" the property of William Dawson.
Andrew pleaded not guilty but was convicted, the nature of the evidence not being recorded in the surviving papers.
A Post-Trial Calendar states the outcome, as Andrew's name is bracketed with various others as to sentence "Convicted of Felony ... burglary in the dwelling house of William Dawson and stealing therein his goods, value four pounds ten shillings". "Let them be severally Transported beyond the seas.....Andrew Snowden.....For the term of Seven Years....to such place as His Majesty, with the advice of the Privy Council, shall think fit to declare and appoint, pursuant to the Statute in each case made and provided."
(In 1979 another English researcher - A.J. McMillan - obtained details of Andrew Snowden's Trial in the ASSI 31 16. South East Circuit Agenda Book, 1789-92. Details are very similar - with the addition of another man, Henry Alport, who gave evidence against Andrew. The document also states 'Jury say guilty of stealing to the value of 39/-. Not guilty of breaking and entering the dwelling house. No goods. To be transported beyond the seas for the term of seven years'.)
Andrew was transported on the "Pitt", which was part of the 4th Fleet. (The 'Pitt' was built in 1780 on the Thames and weighed 775 tons. She was the largest vessel to have come with convicts to Australia carrying 410 convicts - 352 men and 58 women - on her only voyage to N.S.W. - 5 escaped, 29 died - 20 men and 9 females. The ship sailed from Yarmouth on 17 Jul 1791 - the voyage taking 212 days - arriving 14 Feb 1792. The master was Edward Manning, the Surgeon ... Jameson.)
The voyage is well documented in "The Convict Ships" by Charles Bateson and Andrew Snowden and family are written up in "Fourth Fleet Families of Australia" by C.J.Smee. Subsequent research has found some information to be incorrect!
In 1795 Andrew was living on leased land in Rose Hill situated on the maid road to Parramatta.
Andrew's sentence expired on 1st February 1798 and he received a Certificate of Freedom in February 1811 (State Archives ref 4/4427, p530-1). He was listed under List 6 - List of Persons 1801 AF 323 322 - Andrew Snowden N Pitt (ref - Musters and Lists NSW & Norfolk Island 1800-1802)
Details of Andrew Snowden and family as notated in Musters of 1800-2, 1811, 1814 and 1822 supplied by Audrey Meisenhelter, Researcher, at Parramatta & District Historical Society.
From the Australian Archives there is a list of Convict Clothing Allowance 1790-1800 which describes the clothing usually provided for the use of convicts. The males were allotted two jackets, one waistcoat, one pair of breeches, two shirts, one hat, one woolen cap, two pair of shoes and two pair of stockings. The females got one striped jacket, one striped petticoat, one hat, two flannel petticoats, three pairs of stockings, two pairs of shoes, two handkerchiefs, two caps - each set of clothing to be kept in a bag (also issued). I wonder how long this allotment was supposed to last! I have a copy of well known sketch depicting how convicts looked in 1792 - attributed to Juan Ravenent who was part of the Spanish expedition to the Pacific 1789-94. According to the book 'The Battle of Vinegar Hill' by Lynette Ramsey Silver, Andrew Snowden was listed as a Private in the Parramatta Loyalists. 'Contrary to popular belief, the 36 Parramatta Loyalists embodied on 5Mar1804, with the exception of William Mounslow and Robert Wells, remained in Parramatta to defend the town. Some, however, took place in the search and subsequent arrest of Samuel Humes' party, 'lost' near Castle Hill.'
From the Sydney Gazette 27 Oct 1805:
"A quantity of wearing apparel found in the possession of Elizabeth Lily, was proved to be the property of I. Sutherland, a private in the NSW Corps, Who had been twice plundered by the fame villians, as acknowledged by Lemon, from whom the woman had received the property. This youthful miscreant declared the fact of having committed the last robbery by himself; but in his acknowledgement of the first implicated Evans, who not only accompanied him, but officiated as treasurer, and paid him his dividend. Another felony committed upon the property of A. Snowden was likewise proved against the prisoners; and in aggravation of the crime itself it appeared, that the latter was a fellow workman, employed by the same Gentleman, and in daily habits of intimacy and friendly intercourse. Lemon acknowledged the fact; and Evans likewise acknowledged that he had told him of it; but gave as a reason for keeping as a secret from Snowden, that he did not like to promote dissention among friends.
Lemon, not content with practising his villanies upon his friends and acquaintances, and whomsoever else chance had thrown in his way, at length threw himself into the arms of justice by a theft upon his Master, which tho' trivial bespoke him infamous, and justified suspicion of his guilt in crimes of which he had been indirectly challenged.
Evans, although a convict servant, was in the habit of receiving the most liberal encouragement from the Gentleman above mentioned, and besides his weekly subsistence, a pecuniary reward for his services as a good mechanic, at least equivalent to the wages demanded by the best free labourers; yet it now is manifest that indulgence has been shamefully abused, and generosity odiously repaid with imposition and neglect. - All the parties were remanded".
From the Sydney Gazette 1 6Mar 1806:
"Among other depredations committed by the bush rangers lately absent, we hear of two boats, one a large one belonging to Richard Knight, a fettler, and the other a small one to A. Snowden, a carpenter. The building of J. Harris Esq at the swamp was robbed on Friday, and one of the delinquents seen on a small island in the channel; the measures adopted by the Officer of Police will we trust soon bring to a conclusion a system of depredation which cannot at all events be possibly of long continance".
From the Sydney Gazette 16 Mar 1806:
"Between the hours of 4 and 6 in the evening of Sunday last a robbery was affected in the house of Thos. Andrews, in Pitt's Row; and 9 1/2 guineas were taken out of a trunk, and between 40 and 50 dollars. Two men were the same evening apprehended on vehement suspicion of the offence, and several guineas being found about them, fully strengthened the suspicion for which they were in the first instance indented to the over caution of the principal in the fact. On Tuesday the above men, viz. A. Snowden and J. Evans were examined; and after a close of chain of presumptive evidence being taken on deposition, both were remanded".
From the Bench of Magistrates - Saturday March 15. Sydney Gazette 16Jun1806
"Snowden and Caffery ( and not Evans as before mentioned) were brought forward re examination in the charge of breaking into and robbing the house of Thomas Andrews on Sunday last. The evidence that appeared against Caffery was strong though circumstantial, and every opportunity was granted him of advancing every thing that might tend to defeat the evidence against him in the present stage of the business. Between 4 and 5 the above day very soon after Mr Andrews and his wife had walked out together, he called at the adjoining house, and after enquiring for a man next door further up the Row, requested permission to go through the house, in order to take the other by surprise; a mortice chisel was seen in his jacket pocket; he was absent about ten minutes; and then returning through the same house, was questioned as he had seen the person he wanted? to which he replied he had though actually he had not: - for rather unfortunately for him, the man he enquired for had been absent from home, and was returning just as the prisoner was going out. The prisoner did ask him a question or two, but these being not of any serious kind, were afterwards construed into an idle subterfuge. This person, who also saw the chisel in his pocket likewise thought him rather agitated, and desirous of going further: so that after the alarm had been given, and a chisel appearing to be the implement used in effecting the robbery, suspicion attached to the prisoner, who when taken had several guineas and dollars about him, in attempting to account for which he prevaricated repeatedly.
The presumptive evidence against Snowden was, that he was on the look-out at an opposite house when the offence was committed; and that several acquaintances of Mr. Andrews proceeding towards the house shortly after he had gone out of it, were accosted by Snowden, who informed them that nobody was at home, that Andrews and his wife were just stepped out towards the Hospital Wharf and that they might easily overtake them. These people went into the house where Snowden was; and thought from his answers to different questions that he also appeared a good deal confused. When apprehended the money found about him of the same kind as that which had been lost considerably strengthened the first suspicion; and in addition to this a half guinea with some particular marks was sworn to; - and the prisoners were remanded".
From the Sydney Gazette 23 Mar 1806:
"On Tuesday a Bench of Magistrates assembled before which Snowden and Caffery were again brought on the robbery committed in the house of T. Andrews. The evidence being rehearsed, & appearing perfectly clear and decisive, the prisoners were sentenced three years hard labour for the Crown in addition to their original term of transportation, and Caffery to receive 100 lashes".
From Gwenyth Frear - "He (Andrew) had also joined the army at some stage, as
he served with it from 1802-1805."
23Mar1806 - "Snowden and Caffrey, for a robbery, 100 lashes each and 3 years transportation in addition to their original term". Andrew had stolen forty to fifty Spanish Dollars - quite usual currency in those days. and also of nine and a half guineas. There is no evidence or mention of the said 100 lashes being given or the convicts re-transported - perhaps information misreported in newspaper.
Both Andrew Snowden and Sarah Dart (Darke) are listed in the 1806 General Muster of 12Aug and Samuel Marsden's Female Muster. They were now Free by Servitude, Andrew being employed by the Pitt Loyalist Association at Parramatta as a Private, Sarah listed as concubine to Andrew Sno(w)den with one male illegitimate child. Their first child was Andrew Jnr, born 9Mar1806 at Parramatta. Sarah Ann, their first daughter was born 3Aug1809, also born at Parramatta.
20 Aug 1809
The under-mentioned Letters are for delivery at my Office. Signed I. Nichols - By the 'Indispensible' - Andw Snowden. According to Colonial Government Records Pre 1901, Andrew Snowdon on 24 Nov 1809 was granted 76 rods of land in the Main St of the township of Parramatta for an annual rent of five shillings a year by Lt. Gov Wm Patterson Esq. Details differ slightly on the Index & Registers of Land Grants & Leases - Ref: SR Reel 2561 7/447 p62 - land grant is documented - Grant 561 Vol 86 - 76 rods granted on 1 Jan 1810 for 19/4 Annual Rent - Description of Grant (bounded on the N Side by the line of the houses bearing W by N 184 feet on the W side by Jennings Lease bearing S by W 200 feet on the South side by a line W by N 104 feet and on the S side by a line N & E 200 ft - on the condition to build a sufficient dwelling house 36 ft in length and 14 ft in width reserving the right of improving the street with such part of said land as Government shall require.)
In a Memorial to Gov. Macquarie on 27 Jan 1810 Andrew Snowden petitioned him saying he "has resided 15 years past on the alotment of ground this leave specifies and has been at an Expence and Labour on the same by part building a new house and many other conveniences. This petitioner has a Wife and two children, has been in this country eighteen years, free twelve years, and since my arrival in this country has allways behaved honest and industrious". Records on 30 Apr 1810 report Andrew Snowden as having had to surrender land grant to Gov. Macquarie (Convicts & Pioneer History Book 2, Vol 1 by James McClelland).
(The Petition of 1810 to Governor Macquarie, as explained by descendent Beryl Rooke in 1998) - The land lease was granted earlier, then 'recalled by proclamation' by Lt. Gov. Paterson. The petition is to request re-instatement or confirmation, then Macquarie did re-confirm it and gave Andrew the land lease title, seemingly back-dating it to 1Jan1810)
The 1810 Muster states that Andrew Snowden had ..'resided 15 years on his leased land; had built a new house, had a wife and 2 children and had been 18 years in the Colony, had been free for 12 years'.
On 5Jun1810 Andrew Snowden was listed as a Corporal in the Parramatta Loyal Association - those who would be willing and available to take up Arms in the event of another armed Rebellion as happened at the Battle for Vinegar Hill on 4 Mar 1804. On 17 Jul 1810 he was "signature to petition from Parramatta residents to R. Durie for erection of a public pound".
In the General Muster of 1811 both Andrew and Sarah are listed with all their relevent convict details as in 1806. Ref - Andrew PRONO696 AO4476. Ref -Sarah Darts? N4363 1464.
From the State Archives of NSW - Register of Pardons and Tickets of Leave Vol 1 pp 530-31 No 29/528 - Andrew Snowden received Certificate of Emancipation on 1Feb 1811.
On 6Mar1811 he was mentioned as having received a spirit licence in Feb 1811. A month after being a juror on 2Feb1812 at the inquest on Michael Wallis held at Parramatta.
A third child, a son Henry Davis was born 20 Oct 1811.
Andrew married Sarah on 21Mar1812 at St. John's Parramatta by Rev Samuel Marsden. Andrew was aged 44, Sarah 35. The witnesses were Richard and Elizabeth Jones who both signed with an 'X'.
In the 1814 General Muster Andrew Snowden is listed as Free and "off stores" and a landholder - he must have freeholded his land as soon as he could. Sarah Dark? is also Free and "off stores", wife of Andrew Snowden with 3 children also "off stores".
Andrew was on List of Persons holding licences for sale of wine and spiritous liquors on 7 Aug 1813, also on list of persons licensed as publicans for 1815 at Parramatta on 1 Apr 1815. On 24 Jun 1815 as a Publican of Parramatta - a General Order cancelling Snowden's licence for keeping a disorderly house was listed. Andrew had part ownership of a pub with James Larra - James Larra, Sargeant Major, was signatory to the Return of the Parramatta Association dd 9 May 1810.
(James Larra arrived per 'Scarborough' in 1790 in the Third Fleet, Jewish - one of the most enterprising! Operated as a Deal and Publican in Parramatta).
On 10 Jun 1815 Andrew Snowden was granted 50 acres of land in the district of Bringelly for the annual rent of one shilling (1/-) - Rent to commence on 10 Jun 1820. To be called Snowden's Farm it was conditional on his cultivating 15 of these acres. This grant is documented on page 49 of Register 2 of the Index & Registers of Land Grants & Leases - Grant No 441 Vol 68. There is also a map showing the location - it was next door to Andrew Nash's "Andrew's Farm". The agreement was dated December 1816. Andrew was able to run cattle on this land as well, and had a herd of 30 horned cattle eventually.
From the Sydney Gazette 21 Jan 1815 -
"Strayed, from Sydney; early in December last, a dark Bay Mare, 15 hands high, black mane, legs and tail, the tail docked - Whoever will bring the said Mare to Andrew Snowden, at Parramatta, will receive a Reward of Two Pounds".
From the Sydney Gazette 17 Feb 1816 -
"Stolen, from the House of Michael Murphy, at Prospect, on Thursday the 1st Instant, the following Notes, Viz. one drawn by Andrew Nash in favour of Michael Murphy, dated Jan 31, 1815, payable 12 months after date, for the sum of 90 pounds Currency, and witnessed by Andrew Snowden; a Note of Hand, payable in 18 months, for the sum of 100 pounds Currency, and also witnessed by Andrew Snowden; and a Note of Hand drawn by Joseph Phelps, in favour of Anthony Best or Bearer, three months after date, and due the 1st of last January, for 17 pounds Currency. Any person returning the above Notes to the Undersigned, or to Mr Andrew Nash, Parramatta, will receive Five Pounds Sterling Reward.
Signed Michael Murphy.
Another wine and Spirit licence was issued on 1 Apr 1816 to Andrew Snowden. On 19 Aug 1819 Andrew was again a Juror at an inquest. This time the person was Thomas Gorman and the inquest was held at Parramatta.
A list of persons who tendered Supplies of Fresh Meat for the use of His Majesty's Stores was printed in the Sydney Gazette on Sat 20 Mar 1819. Mr Andrew Snowden of Parramatta suppled 2000 pounds weight of meat to Government Stores on 10 Apr 1819.
The 1821 Bigge Report found at the Mitchell Library, Sydney states Andrew Snowden held 50 acres by grant (1821 Bigge J.T. report appendix p5509 B.T.box 25). In the same year a Beer licence was granted to him. Also more meat sales to Government.
Andrew was noted in the Colonial Government Records on 24 May 1821 as "Store receipts of for fresh meat paid at Parramatta". On 18 Jul 1822 was a "Signatory to memorial from inhabitants and stockholders of Parramatta re common land on the Sydney road known as the Dog Traps". On 5Apr1823 Andrew was "On return of allotments in the town of Parramatta".
Between 1816 and 1825, five more children were born to Andrew and Sarah. Isabella b. 5Apr1816, Mary b. 20 Feb 1820, John b. 1822c and Henry b. 1824c (both died as infants) and Robert b. 1825.
In the 1822 General Muster and Land & Stock Muster of N.S.W., Andrew Snowden is listed as licensed victualler at Parramatta. Also "by grant cleared ground 7 acres total held 50 acres, 16 head cattle, 1 hog, 20 bales grain in hand". In the General Return of Allotments in the Town of Parramatta 1823, Andrew Snowden is listed at No 19 George St, his allotment being 90 perches, and valued at two pound, five shillings. There is a map of Parramatta in 1823 showing this allotment.
On 23 Aug 1824 both Andrew Snr and Andrew Jnr petitioned His Excellency Sir Thomas Brisbane for a land grant. Andrew Snr states he is a "free Colonist that he has been thirty three years in this Colony. He has at this time thirty head of cattle much increasing and is very much distressed for a feed of pasture for them.
"The Memorial also states "We hereby Certify that Andrew Snowden Snr is to our belief a very honest and well disposed family Man and an old inhabitant of Parramatta. As such we do respectfully recommend him to your Excellencys humane consideration" The Memorial has a signature Don Macleod Esq. A postscript signed by Samuel Marsden states "This petitioner is a man of some property and has a family to provide for." Andrew Jnr stated "being a Native of this Colony, nineteen years of age, who has never received any indulgence from Government, Your Memorialist therefore most humbly intreats that Your Excellency will be pleased to take his case into your kind consideration and give to him a proportionable grant of land for which your Excellencys humane kindness, Your Memorialist most humbly as in Duty bound will ever Pray". The Memorial also adds that "We hereby certify that Andrew Snowden Jnr is to our knowledge and belief a very Sober, and well instructed young man. We therefore in consideration of his good and steady conduct is by us recommended to Your Excellencys humane and kind Attention".
A postcript in different handwriting states "This petitioner is a native of Parramatta - his father can assist him should he obtain a grant of land." Both these Memorials were written in the same handwriting in a very ornate style. It appears that both Andrews were illiterate because the signatures are both the same, the style matching the handwriting of the Memorial. Andrew and Sarah's two youngest sons Andrew and Henry are mentioned in the 1825 muster but not in the 1828 Census. Andrew Snr is listed in the 1825 Muster as Publican at Parramatta with seven children.
From Parramatta & District Historical Society.
An extract of an article in the Sydney Gazette, Thursday March 4th, 1830 - "The following Address has been presented to A.C. Innes Esq. Superintendent of Police at Parramatta, by the inhabitants of that town.
To A.C. Innes Esq. J.P.
Sir, As you are about to vacate the seat of Police Magistrate at this Station, we, the undersigned, being Landholders, Merchants, Dealers, Householders, & others, the Inhabitants of Parramatta & its districts, beg leave most respectively to assure you of our entire approbation of your conduct, whilst you have been amongst us & of that mild disposition & polite attention, manifested towards all classes of the inhabitants, & we further assure you of our best wishes for your happiness & prosperity, & we cannot divest our minds of the hope that the Executive Government will justly appreciate your fitness for a public situation."
Signed by 374 people including Andrew Snowden Snr & Jnr, Henry Snowden, & John Deane.
Andrew Snr is buried at St. John's in the same grave as his wife but is not mentioned on the headstone. He died 1 Nov 1833 at Parramatta.
Sarah Dart (or Darke) was born c.1778 in Gloucestershire, died 13 July 1828 (well-preserved headstone at St John's, ?Parramatta). She was sentenced March 1797 at Gloucester to 7 years transportation. She arrived at Sydney on 30 April 1796 on "Indispensible".
Sarah and her husband Andrew had 7 children. Andrew (born 1806) and Henry (born 1811) are thought to have emigrated to New Zealand.
Descendants of Sarah Darke have researched the family back to the early 1700s. Richard Darke married Mary Drinkwater - they were both from Gloucester - on 24Mar1705 at Whaddon. They had eleven children, the last three have their surnames listed as Dart/e. Richard became a Freeman of the City in 1702. He was an apprentice gunsmith of Master John Reeve. Richard submitted 3 sons at the 25th birthday of each to the Lord Mayor of Gloucester City to be made a Freeman of the City. Richard possibly died before his son Henry had reached 25 years of age. This son Henry was christened 13Mar1721 at Gloucester St Michael. Henry was made a Freeman of the City in 1747. He married his first wife Edith Dawes on 20Apr1748. Edith had been christened 14Jan1722 at Bulley near Upton St Leonard the dau of Thomas Dawes. (Thomas was christened in 1685 at Langhope the son of John and Jane Dawes). Henry married his second wife Jane Noakes on 11 Jun 1758. She died in 1761, Henry four years later in 1765. Their son Henry, who was born about 1748, married Mary Hannes on 26 Jul 1772 at Upton St Leonards. On the IGI record his name is spelt Henery! Mary was christened 17 Nov 1751 at Upton St Leonards, the dau of William and Elizabeth Hannes nee Perry. Henry and Mary's daughter Sarah Darke was possibly christened 23 Mar 1778 at Gloucester St Michael. The remains of Gloucester St Michael Church are now the Tourist Information Bureau! Sarah Darke (Drake, Dart, Darts) was 18 years old when delivered to Gloucester City Goal on 11 Mar 1795 after being sentenced to 7 years transportation. Parchment documents, some damaged and faded including the narrow strip on which Sarah's indictment was set out, were found in box No ASSI5/115/3 by English Researcher Stephen Wright. The details are as follows.
"Sarah Darke, late of St Mary de Crypt in the City of Gloucester and County of the same, spinster, and Sarah Mann, late of the same, spinster, on 11th day of February 1795 stole Four pairs of stays of the value of 6 pounds" from the house in St Mary de Crypt Parish of John Hoskins, (her employer). The reverse side of the indictment was marked 'True Bill' so her trial was to proceed, also names the witnesses sworn in to give evidence in court, John Hoskins and William Bourne. Both girls pleaded not guilty.
From bundle No 8 of 'Depositions etc' for the Lent Assizes there were 3 sworn statements. One statement dated 20 Feb 1795 was made by John Hoskins, a stay maker whose shop was built onto the front of his house in St Mary de Crypt Parish in the City of Gloucester. He said that 4 pairs of Women's stays had been stolen from his shop and that he had found one of these pairs in the possession of Sarah Darke and a second pair in that of Sarah Mann. A second statement by John Hoskins dated the following day states "he had found the 2 pairs when he had gone with a search warrant to the house of Frances Shillam, a widow living outside the City in the Parish of Wootton and acquainted with the two Sarahs. Having found the 2 pairs in their possession, he was told by Frances that the two Sarahs had brought them with them, but that there were no other such items in her house. He searched but found nothing more....." A third statement signed by Edward Pithorne/Pitthorne ( a neighbour of Frances Shillam) on 21 Feb states "Frances had come to his house with a pair of stays wanting to leave them there because she was afraid that her house would be searched and 'her stays' taken away. That was, he said, at 3pm on 20 Feb, and that at just before 6pm he had concluded that they could have been stolen goods, so his wife took them back to Frances."
The story was then taken up by the remainder of John Hoskins' statement of 21 Feb - "At about 7pm on 20th, John had learned of Edward's claims regarding Frances and 'her stays', so he went back to her house and met the Constable, who had already found the third pair of stays there. Frances had then admitted that she believed that Sarah Darke had pawned the fourth pair for 5 shillings."
Both Sarahs were transported on the "Indispensible" arriving 30Apr1796 in N.S.W.
The "Indispensible" was built in 1791 in France and was of 351 tons. She sailed in Oct 1795 from England, carried 133 convict women on a voyage taking about 6 months touching only at Rio. Only 2 convicts died on the voyage. There is a photocopy of a list of convicts on the 'Indispensible' with both Sarahs names on it, their trial date, their place of Transportation and Term of Imprisonment.
"Sixty of the women were sent up to Parramatta, there to be employed in such labour as was suited to their sex and strength. The remainder were landed at this place (Sydney Cove)" - letter from Gov. John Hunter to Duke of Portland telling the fate of some of the convict women from the "Indispensible". She was free by 1802 and probably went to the Women's Factory in Parramatta. No further information of Sarah until the 1806 Muster - employed by Andrew Snowden in his pub at Parramatta. Sarah and Andrew had four children before being married in 1812 by Rev Samuel Marsden.
From Gwenyth Frear - "Sydney was a very small town then, and the area of Parramatta was some miles from the harbour. It was a small community of it's own, and was served by the church of St John which was presided over by none other than Samuel Marsden. Samuel Marsden had the reputation of being a very hard man, giving no quarter to anyone; indeed, he was known in that area as the 'flogging magistrate'! Not only was he the minister serving the church, but he was responsible for being the magistrate as well, and he was known for dealing out some harsh penalties".
Sarah died 13 Jul 1828 just prior to the 1828 Census. She was buried at St. John's Cemetery, Parramatta on 14Jul1828. She is buried under a sandstone headstone whichis described as Norman with cutaway shoulders, decorated with crossed palm frond and trumpet. There is a matching footstone.
Her headstone reads "Sacred to the Memory of SARAH wife of ANDw. SNOWDEN SENr. Who Departed this Life 13th July 1828 Aged 51 Years We hope the Lord will recieve (sic) Her Soul". In the Burial Register she is designated as Free publican's wife.